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YouTube and Internet On-Demand Video

Page history last edited by Jeff Martinek 15 years, 4 months ago




Video on demand allows users to choose and watch a video or clip over a network as part of an interactive system. Videos are streamed or downloaded, then brought to a set-up box before viewing. The videos are streamed through a set-top box, which allows viewing in real time. In the set-up box the individual is able to have complete control over what they watch by playing, pausing, fast-forwarding, reversing, stopping the video, or jumping frames. When the videos are downloaded they are available to watch at anytime. [3] Typically Video on Demand is to be viewed on television but one can download programs to other media such as their iPod, cell phone, or game consoles. If the Video on Demand is to be viewed through the television, the program might be stored on a DVR then viewed from the DVR’s hard drive. If it is in the case of cable television, the program can be watched from the distributor’s head-end. Some common video on demand providers are YouTube, TiVo, Apple - iPod + iTunes, CinemaNow, DirecTV, and HBO. [1]


Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the trick modes. For disk-based streaming systems which store and stream programs from hard disk drive, trick modes require extra storage on the part of the server. Separate files for fast forward and rewind must be stored. Video on Demand streaming systems have the advantage of being able to perform trick modes directly from RAM. This requires no additional space on the part of the processor. Download Video on Demand services are practical to homes equipped with cable modems or DSL connections. [3]


Near Video on Demand is a pay-per-view consumer video technique used by multi-channel broadcasters using high-bandwidth distribution mechanisms such as satellite and cable television. Many copies of a program are broadcasted in 10-20 minute segments. This provides convenience for viewers. This type of Video on Demand is provided by large operators that have a large capacity and this has been reduced in popularity as video on demand is implemented. [3]


Push Video on Demand is the technique used by broadcasters that lacks the interactivity to provide true video on demand and stimulates a true video on demand system. This uses a personal video recorder to automatically record a selection of programming, often transmitted in spare capacity overnight. People can watch the downloads whenever they would like. As more content is downloaded the old recordings are usually deleted after awhile to make way for new downloads. Since there is limited space on the personal video recorder, flexibility and selection of programs available on such systems is more restricted than true Video on Demand systems. [3]




The first profitable Video on Demand service was unleashed in Hong Kong in 1990. The technology was underdeveloped and not many Hong Kong residents were willing to pay for television.

The first successful Video on Demand provider was Kingston Communications in 1998. They were a UK company that eventually launched broadcast television and internet access through a single set-up box using IP delivery through ADSL. There were several different provdiers; Sky, Telewest, Oceanic Cable, NTL, and in 2008 Kangaroo.


The first Video on Demand to hit the US was in Hawaii by Oceanic Cable in January 2000. Eventually Video on Demand became available to all parts of the US. Now, networks offer Video on Demand to PVR-owning subscribers. Once the Video on Demand is recorded onto a subscriber’s PVR, they can view the program instantly to their convenience. The capability of what can be downloaded through Video on Demand varies widely. According to the European Audiovisual Observatory, 142 paying Video on Demand services were operational in Europe at the end of 2006. [3]





YouTube, a form of Video on Demand is an interactive website that allows to upload, view and share video clips. YouTube was created in 2005 by three former PayPal employees and later sold to Google for US$1.65 billion in Google stock.  Registered users are able to upload as many videos as they want, while unregistered users are able to view most videos on the site. What started as a Video on Demand networking system also changed into a Social Networking site. YouTube allows for a video blogging system which permits users to voice their opinion about the posted content. [2]


With YouTube, there are questions about copyright-infringement. The lawsuits would be over some of the material that people add to their homemade videos that are posted on YouTube. To decrease the risk of lawsuits, YouTube negotiated deals with entertainment companies that would allow copyrighted video material to appear on its website. YouTube users were then able to add certain songs to their videos. In the negotiation, many of copyrighted video films were removed from YouTube. In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM to show some of the studios full-length movies and TV shows on YouTube. The broadcasts are free to watch but do contain advertisements along with it.


YouTube’s popularity has lead to the creation of many YouTube internet celebrities. An internet celebrity is an individual who has brought attention to themselves through the use of videos on YouTube. Judson Laipply, a 30-year-old comedian/motivational speaker is one of these internet celebrities. Laipply is better known for his “Evolution of Dance” video clip which is now the #1 Most Viewed (All Time) Video, #1 Most Favorited (All Time) Video, and #8 Most Discussed (All Time) Video on YouTube. [4]


Laipply is just one individual who has become popular through YouTube. For those who have not yet hit the celebrity scene, there is still a chance. Many people kill their time by making obscene yet creative videos to post on YouTube hoping to be watched by millions, trying to find fame.


Criticisms of Video on Demand


Having generated a system where the control over content, style, and timing is up to the individual we have created a system in which we are no longer surprised. We no longer have the ability to develop new tastes, instead we focus on the recurrence of our obsessions. This deducts from valuing authentic entity.


YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, it is left up to the copyright holders to detect if there is something that needs to be removed. YouTube has now created a system called Video ID, that checks uploaded videos against a database of copyrighted content with the aim of reducing violations. [2]


“The creation and near-universal adoption of the remote control arguably marks the beginning of the era of the personalization of technology.” [Ego-casting] With this said, we understand that Video on Demand has put us into a more personalized era of technology. At one point in time, individuals would stop watching television when there was no longer anything to watch. However, with Video on Demand, individuals are able to watch whatever they want, whenever they want. This lends itself hand-in-hand to the current obesity epidemic. People spend more time wedged into their sofas, watching television because there are more things for them to watch consecutively. Before Video on Demand we already used half of our leisure time watching television. We spend more time watching television than any other activity accept for working and sleeping. [6]


Research done at Yale University found that watching television factors in decreased attention spans and impatience with delay. This provides reason as to why the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit and Hyperactive Disorder is higher than ever before. [5]


Boredom and distraction also come with these findings. Retrospectively, children spent their days playing outside or inside with the mental capacity to create their own games. Nowadays, children suffer from boredom because they do not possess the creative factor that children once did. The television also give a child an lot of stimulation that they can't get when they aren't watching it. Many people blame television for this and Video on Demand will have a deeper contributing factor on the creativity of children. Maybe this will be a good thing though as later eras will not contain the creativity to administer such things as Video on Demand.


Implications For Video On Demand


TV-Based Video on Demand is revolutionizing the television spectacle. Eventually people will be able to view most of their favorite television shows instead of just movies and special events by these means. People will have the ability to pick out their favorite sit-coms from a list of every sit-com available. If they want they can even watch the next ten episodes of that television show because they are able to make their own schedule with Video on Demand. Video on Demand will allow people to watch the things they want on a more scheduled basis. This will allow for more important tasks to be completed first. Hopefully this will help out with how many hours a days that are spent watching the television.



[1] The Video on Demand Dictionary and Business Index: http://www.itvdictionary.com/vod.html, 2008.


[2] "YouTube" Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 23 November 2008, 03:01 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 23 November 2008. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YouTube ∞>


[3] "Video On Demand" Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 23 November 2008, 16:19 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 23 November 2008. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_on_demand >∞.


[4] "Judson Laipply" Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 8 April 2008, 21:04 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 10 Feb. 2008. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judson_Laipply >∞.


[5] Rosen, Christine. The Age of Egocasting: The New Atlantis, Number 7. Fall 2004/Winter 2005, pp. 51-72.


[6] "Google Inc,:: Google Video and YouTube" Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 23 November 2008, 14:57 UTC. Encyclopedia Britannica. <http://chadwick.iwc.edu:2069/eb/article-278429>∞


Original Author:  Aimee Kowalski

Editor: Raigan Wear

Comments (5)

Jeff Martinek said

at 10:51 am on Sep 12, 2008

Note the format for citing a wikipedia article as in my entry

[1] "General Semantics" Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 01 April, 2008 10:55 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 10 Feb. 2008. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_semantics>∞.

First date is the date you accessed the article. Second date is latest update of the article, found on the bottom left of the page.
-- AdmiN (2008-04-04 15:58:36)

Jeff Martinek said

at 10:51 am on Sep 12, 2008

I think your wiki looks awesome so far! Keep up the good work!
-- SarahAnderson (2008-04-14 15:59:05)

Jeff Martinek said

at 10:51 am on Sep 12, 2008

I like the way your wiki looks right now. I liked the youtube show on there!
-- JenniferCrowe (2008-04-14 16:03:37)

Jeff Martinek said

at 11:04 am on Nov 25, 2008

Nicholas Negroponte discusses VOD in the selections from "Being Digital" that was part of our reading this semester (pp. 5-6) -- JM

Jeff Martinek said

at 8:30 pm on Nov 30, 2008

A few more articles:

"I Tube, You Tube, Everybody Tubes":

"Moving Image Preservation and Cultural Capital":

"The YouTube Effect":

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